Prvi koraci

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Šta ima novo

Predgovor

FreeCAD je CAD/CAE aplikacija parametarskog modeliranja.Prvenstveno je napravljen za dizajn mehanike, ali podržava sve druge primjene gdje je potrebno 3D modeliranje objekata sa velikom preciznošću i kontrolom zabilješki modelirnja.

FreeCAD je u razvoju već neko vrijeme i pruža dugačku (i stalno rastuću)listu Funkcije. Mogućnosti su ograničene u usporedbi sa komercijalnim rješenjima i možda nisu dovoljno razvijene za korištenje u proizvodnji ali su dovoljne za većinu hobi korisnika i za manje radionice. Ovdje se nalazi brzo rastuća zajednica oduševljenih korisnika koji sudjeluju u razvoju FreeCAD forum a vi možete pogledati na primjeri stranicu gdje će te naći mnoštvo projekata razvijenih sa programom FreeCAD.

Kao svi open-source projekti, FreeCAD projekt nije jednostrano djelo koje vam se servira. On je ovisan o zajednici da bi mogao rasti, dobiti nove funkcije ili ispraviti pogreške u programu. Zato nemojte to zaboraviti dok koristite FreeCAD ; ako vam se sviđa, vi možete direktno utjecati na program i pomoći u razvoju help FreeCAD!

Instalacija

Prvo preuzmite i instalirajte FreeCAD. Pogledaj Download stranicu za informacije o preuzimanju, trenutnoj verziji programa, i o nadopunama. Za instrukcije Instalacija ṡtranicu. Tamo se nalaze paketi za Windowse (.msi), Debian i Ubuntu (.deb), openSUSE (.rmp) i Mac OSX. FreeCAD je dostupan kroz "package managers" puno drugih Linux distribucija. Samostalni AppImage izvršni program je takođe dostupan za većinu novijih 64-bit Linux sistema. FreeCAD je open-source, vi možete preuzeti "source code" kompiliranje i sastaviti (kompilirati) ga sami.

Istraži FreeCAD

Freecad-interface.jpg


  1. 3D prikaz, prikazuje stvari u vašem dokumentu
  2. Pregled grananja, prikazuje hijerarhiju i povijest izrade od svih objekata u vašem dokumentu
  3. Uređivač osobina, koji omogućava da vidite i promijenite osobine odabranih objekata
  4. Izvještaj (ili prozor izlaza), u kojem FreeCAD ispisuje poruke, upozorenja i greške
  5. Python Konzola, gdje se ispisuju sve naredbe koje se izvršavaju u FreeCAD-u, i gdje možete upisati Python izvršni kod
  6. Odabir radnog stola, gdje odabirete aktivni radni stol


Osnovni koncept FreeCAD sučelja je taj da je podijeljen na Radne površine. Radna površina je kolekcija alata za specifičnu namjenu, kao rad sa Mrežom, ili crtanje 2D objekti, ili Ograničene Skice. Možete odabrati aktivnu Radnu površinul sa izbornikom (6). Možete prilagoditi Postavke sučelja uključene u Radnu površinu, dodati alate iz druge Radne površine ili osobno kreiranih alata, koje mi zovemo macros. Obično se počinje sa Radnim površinama Oblikovanje Tijela i Tijelo.

Kada otvorite FreeCAD prvi puta otvorit če se Start Centar Ovdje je izgled od verzije v0.16:


Startcenter.jpg

For FreeCAD 0.17 see this start center screenshot.

Start Centar omogućuje brzi prijelaz na uobičajene radne stolove, otvara uobičajeni dokument ili pregled zadnjih vijesti iz FreeCAD svijeta. Vi možete promijeniti početni radni stol u Postavke.

Navigacija u 3D prostoru

FreeCAD has several different navigation modes available, that change the way you use your mouse to interact with the objects in the 3D view and the view itself. One of them is specifically made for touchpads, where the middle mouse button is not used. The following table describes the default mode, called CAD Navigation (You can quickly change the current navigation mode by right-clicking on an empty area of the 3D view):


Odabir Pomakni Zoom Zaokreni pogled
Prva mogučnost
Zaokreni pogled
Druga mogučnost
Hand cursor.png Pan cursor.png Zoom cursor.png Rotate cursor.png Rotate cursor.png
Mouse LMB.svg Mouse MMB hold.svg Mouse MMB rotate.svg Mouse MMB+LMB hold.svg Mouse MMB+RMB hold.svg
Kliknite sa lijevom tipkom miša na objekt kojeg želite odabrati.

Držeći stisnutom Ctrl tipku moguće je odabrati više objekata.

Držite stisnutu srednju tipku i onda pomjerajte. Koristite točak miša za zumiranje.

Pritiskanjem desne tipke miša premješta središte rotacije na položaj strelice.

Držite stisnutu srednju tipku miša , zatim stisnite i držite lijevu tipku miša i onda pomjerajte.

The cursor location when the middle mouse button is pressed determines the center of rotation. Rotation works like spinning a ball which rotates around its center. If the buttons are released before you stop the mouse motion, the view continues spinning, if this is enabled.

Dvostruki pritisak na srednju tipku miša postavlja središte rotacije.

držite srednju tipku, zatim stisnite i držite desnu tipku miša i onda pomjerajte.

With this method the middle mouse button may be released after the right mouse button is hold pressed.

Users who use the mouse with their right hand may find this method easier than the first method.

Ctrl+Mouse RMB.svg Ctrl+Shift+Mouse RMB.svg Shift+Mouse RMB.svg
Pan mode: držite Ctrl tipku, stisnite desnu tipku miša jednom, zatim pomjerajte. available in version 0.17 Zoom mode: držite Ctrl i Shift tipke, stisnitipku mišate desnu tipku miša jednom, zatim pomjerajte. available in version 0.17 mod zakretanja: držite Shift tipku, stisnite desnu tipku miša jednom, zatim pomjerajte. available in version 0.17


Vi imate nekoliko pogleda koji su predefinirani (pogled odozgo, pogled sprijeda itd.) koji se nalaze u izborniku pregleda, a imate i brojevne prečice (1, 2, itd...). Sa klikom na objekt ili prazno područje sa desnom tipkom miša možete dobiti brzi pristup nekim osnovnim operacijama kao postavljanje pogleda, ili položaj objekta u stablu pregleda.

Prvi koraci sa FreeCAD-om

FreeCAD's focus is to allow you to make high-precision 3D models, to keep tight control over those models (being able to go back into modelling history and change parameters), and eventually to build those models (via 3D printing, CNC machining or even construction worksite). It is therefore very different from some other 3D applications made for other purposes, such as animation film or gaming. Its learning curve can be steep, especially if this is your first contact with 3D modeling. If you are struck at some point, don't forget that the friendly community of users on the FreeCAD forum might be able to get you out in no time.

The workbench you will start using in FreeCAD depends on the type of job you need to do: If you are going to work on mechanical models, or more generally any small-scale objects, you'll probably want to try the PartDesign Workbench. If you will work in 2D, then switch to the Draft Workbench, or the Sketcher Workbench if you need constraints. If you want to do BIM, launch the Arch Workbench. If you are working with ship design, there is a special Ship Workbench for you. And if you come from the OpenSCAD world, try the OpenSCAD Workbench.

You can switch workbenches at any time, and also customize your favorite workbench to add tools from other workbenches.

Rad sa Radnim površinama Oblikovanje Tijela i Skice

The PartDesign Workbench is specially made to build complex objects, starting from simple shapes, and adding or removing pieces (that we call "features"), until you get to your final object. All the features you applied during the modelling process are stored in a separate view called the tree view, which also contains the other objects in your document. You can think of a PartDesign object as a succession of operations, each one applied to the result of the preceding one, forming one big chain. In the tree view, you see your final object, but you can expand it and retrieve all preceding states, and change any of their parameter, which automatically updates the final object.

The PartDesign workbench makes heavy use of another workbench, the Sketcher Workbench. The sketcher allows you to draw 2D shapes, which are defined by applying Constraints to the 2D shape. For example, you might draw a rectangle and set the size of a side by applying a length constraint to one of the sides. That side then cannot be resized anymore (unless the constraint is changed).

Those 2D shapes made with the sketcher are used a lot in the PartDesign workbench, for example to create 3D volumes, or to draw areas on the faces of your object that will then be hollowed from its main volume. This is a typical PartDesign workflow:

  1. Create a new sketch
  2. Draw a closed shape (make sure all points are joined)
  3. Close the sketch
  4. Expand the sketch into a 3D solid by using the pad tool
  5. Select one face of the solid
  6. Create a second sketch (this time it will be drawn on the selected face)
  7. Draw a closed shape
  8. Close the sketch
  9. Create a pocket from the second sketch, on the first object

Which gives you an object like this:

Partdesign example.jpg

At any moment, you can select the original sketches and modify them, or change the extrusion parameters of the pad or pocket operations, which will update the final object.

Working with the Draft and Arch workbenches

The Draft Workbench and Arch Workbench behave a bit differently than the other workbenches above, although they follow the same rules, which are common to all of FreeCAD. In short, while the Sketcher and PartDesign are made primarily to design single pieces, Draft and Arch are made to ease your work when working with several, simpler objects.

The Draft Workbench offers you 2D tools somewhat similar to what you can find in traditional 2D CAD applications such as AutoCAD. However, 2D drafting being far away from the scope of FreeCAD, don't expect to find there the full array of tools that these dedicated applications offer. Most of the Draft tools work not only in a 2D plane but also in the full 3D space, and benefit from special helper systems such as Work planes and object snapping.

The Arch Workbench adds BIM tools to FreeCAD, allowing you to build architectural models with parametric objects. The Arch workbench relies extensively on other modules such as Draft and Sketcher. All the Draft tools are also present in the Arch workbench, and most Arch tools make use of the Draft helper systems.

A typical workflow with Arch and Draft workbenches might be:

  1. Draw a couple of lines with the Draft Line tool
  2. Select each line and press the Wall tool to build a wall on each of them
  3. Join the walls by selecting them and pressing the Arch Add tool
  4. Create a floor object, and move your walls in it from the Tree view
  5. Create a building object, and move your floor in it from the Tree view
  6. Create a window by clicking the Window tool, select a preset in its panel, then click on a face of a wall
  7. Add dimensions by first setting the working plane if necessary, then using the Draft Dimension tool

Which will give you this:

Arch workflow example.jpg

Više informacija na Uputstva.

Scripting

And finally, one of the most powerful features of FreeCAD is the scripting environment. From the integrated python console (or from any other external Python script), you can gain access to almost any part of FreeCAD, create or modify geometry, modify the representation of those objects in the 3D scene or access and modify the FreeCAD interface. Python scripting can also be used in macros, which provide an easy method to create custom commands.